The House speaker told Democratic colleagues of her intent at a private leadership meeting on Tuesday, according to the Associated Press.
The committee will be created after Republican senators refused to back a bipartisan commission to investigate the violent attack by Donald Trump’s supporters on 6 January.
Five people, including a US Capitol police officer, died when the one-term president’s supporters tried to prevent the certification of Joe Biden’s election victory.
Mr Trump was impeached for a historic second time in the wake of the violence, although he was acquitted in the Senate, despite a bipartisan majority of senators voting to convict.
Ms Pelosi does not need Republican support to establish the committee.
More than 400 people are facing charges in federal court following the insurrection, which left 140 police officers injured. One officer died, while two others took their own lives in the following days.
The bill to create the commission failed last month when only six Republicans voted to support it, falling short of the 10 required to move it forward.
A total of 60 votes was required for it to advance.
Nine Republicans and two Democrats failed to show up for the vote.
The House had voted 252-175 to support the creation of the independent commission.