The novel coronavirus continues to grip businesses on Main Streets across the country, forcing America’s employers to significantly pare back on their operations or shut down entirely.
While Congress has passed more than $3.6 trillion in coronavirus-related spending, the Federal Reserve has committed to using its tools to “support the flow of credit to households and businesses and thereby promote its maximum employment and price stability goals.”
Since the beginning of March, the Fed has swiftly slashed rates to zero, launched an aggressive quantitative easing program, and unleashed an alphabet soup of liquidity facilities to support the flow of credit in several markets. The central bank hopes its measures will ease credit conditions and keep businesses alive through the virus-induced disruptions.
In total, Fed watchers have referred to the central bank’s measures as “bazookas,” even “going nuclear.”
The Fed is notably getting creative with its tools, dispelling any concern that the central bank was beholden to its 2008 playbook. For the first time, the Fed is tackling financing pressures in the municipal debt market (through the MMLF, CPFF, and MLF) and the corporate debt market (through the PMCCF, SMCCF, CPFF).
The Fed is providing trillions of dollars of liquidity with the help of money appropriated through the CARES Act. In an effort to provide transparency in its role as a lender of last resort, the Fed says it will publish details (participant names, amounts borrowed, interest rates charged, and costs and fees) on a monthly basis for each facility opened with Congressionally-appropriated funds.
Here’s a full breakdown of all the tools (as of May 12) announced by the Fed as it battles the economic impact of the coronavirus:
Near-zero interest rates
Date announced: March 3, March 15
Technical details: Interest rates are the primary tool for monetary policy. The Fed broadly steers rates to support lending when the economy is in need (by lowering rates) and pulls back on lending when the economy may be running too hot (by raising rates).
The Fed began raising rates in 2015 as policymakers feared inflationary pressures; low rates are generally tied to increased inflation — which increases prices for consumers. However, the Fed began cutting interest rates in 2019 amid the trade war. Coronavirus concerns pushed the Fed to cut rates by 50 basis points on March 3 and then slash its interest rate target to between zero and 0.25% on March 15. The Fed has not expressed interest in dipping into negative interest rates, which make it costlier to hold onto money than to lend it out.
How it impacts Main Street: The Fed’s interest rate target concerns overnight bank lending, so interest rates for the average household and business will still be above zero. But for businesses, lower interest rates mean cheaper borrowing costs to invest back into the business and pay workers. For individual households, lower interest rates translate to lower return on bank deposits but generally cheaper rates to finance or refinance auto loans or mortgages.
Quantitative easing (QE)
Date announced: March 15, March 23
Technical details: The Fed said it will purchase at least $500 billion of U.S. Treasuries and $200 billion of agency mortgage-backed securities “over coming months.” On March 23, the Fed announced that it was suspending those limits and would buy assets “in the amounts needed” to support the economy, which would also now include agency commercial mortgage-backed securities. Through QE, the Fed is directly intervening as its own counterparty in the Treasury and agency MBS markets to absorb securities onto its balance sheet.
How it impacts Main Street: When the Fed last launched QE in the financial crisis, the central bank explicitly bought longer-term Treasuries to depress long-term yields. Since yields on longer-term government debt serve as a benchmark for longer-term interest rates, QE purchases targeting 30-year bonds (as the current program does) should in theory keep 30-year mortgage rates from rising too much.
Repurchase agreements (Repo)
Date announced: September 2019
Technical details: As the plumbing of the financial system, the repo market provides financing for banks and broker-dealers at the center of the economy, allowing the levered institutions to cover positions on their balance sheet by lending sums of cash to one another.
Since last September, the New York Fed has offered repurchase agreements to alleviate pressures in the market for interbank short-term loans, but has since increased the scale of the repos available in the wake of the novel coronavirus. Even though the Fed is offering over $5 trillion in total repo agreements (as short as overnight and as long as three months), the uptake has not been anywhere close to that eye-popping figure.
How it impacts Main Street: Stabilizing repo markets also supports money market funds that many Americans are invested in, since the funds often hold some proportion of their assets in daily liquid assets like overnight repos. The NY Fed’s repo operations are also designed to ensure that banks can find short-term financing and therefore feel comfortable continuing to provide credit to customers and businesses.
U.S. dollar swap lines
Date announced: March 15, March 19, March 20
Date launched: March 16
Technical details: Companies around the world disrupted by the novel coronavirus are loading up on U.S. dollars to cover currency hedge positions. As a result, the Fed announced U.S. dollar swap lines with five other major central banks (including the European Central Bank and Bank of Japan) to ensure the availability of the world’s reserve currency.
On March 19, the Fed expanded its U.S. dollar swap lines with nine other central banks and on March 20 the Fed increased the frequency of its previously-announced swaps with the five major central banks.
How it impacts Main Street: The U.S. dollar has strengthened against many global currencies, but with international travel almost all but cut off, most Americans will not see any direct effects of the Fed’s efforts to provide liquidity to foreign exchange markets. But broadly, preventing the world from running out of U.S. dollars ensures that an already exposed U.S. economy isn’t harmed further by dollar shortage-induced financial collapses in other countries.
Tapping into capital and liquidity buffers
Date announced: March 15, March 23
Technical details: After the 2008 financial crisis, Congress passed the Dodd-Frank Act and required banking regulators to increase the amount of capital and liquidity held at U.S. banks in case another crisis struck. To withstand fluctuations, most banks hold capital and liquidity buffers well above their statutory requirements, but the Fed on March 15 encouraged banks to tap into those buffers to lend out into the economy.
The Fed also lowered reserve requirements to zero and on March 23 tweaked a bank capital regulation to more loosely allow banks to lend out retained income. In concert with liquidity facilities concerning money market instruments (MMMLF) and Paycheck Protection Program loans (PPPLF), the Fed has also tweaked the calculation of banks’ liquidity coverage ratios to account for usage of these facilities.
How it impacts Main Street: Bank capital and liquidity regulations are a tightrope; requirements that are too low could lead to fragile balance sheets but requirements that are too high could prevent a bank from lending into an economy in desperate need of more activity.
The Fed hopes that its post-crisis regulations have already beefed up the safety and soundness of the banks, and that it can allow for some slight regulatory easing to encourage them to use their capital to now support businesses and households.
Date announced: March 15
Technical details: The Fed can directly offer short-term loans to banks and lowered the interest rate on discount window loans to 0.25% as of March 16. The Fed also joined other major banking regulators in explicitly encouraging banks to take advantage of the loans, which the eight largest U.S. banks did that same day.
How it impacts Main Street: Historically, banks have been reluctant to access the discount window because of the public perception of needing a loan from the Fed, also known as the “lender of last resort.” In the last crisis, banks accessed the discount window but feared that depositors were going to trigger a run on the bank because of the “stigma” associated with the window.
The Fed’s actions, and the fact that the banks have already accessed the discount window, are designed to show depositors and market participants that using the discount window is not necessarily a sign of bank insolvency or severe stress.
Commercial Paper Funding Facility (CPFF)*
Date announced: March 17, March 23
Date launched: April 14 (effective through March 17, 2021)
Technical details: The Fed announced that it would directly finance eligible commercial paper, a common form of short-term corporate debt. Although the Fed does not have the ability to add commercial paper directly to its balance sheet, the central bank established a special purpose vehicle (SPV) with $10 billion of equity investment from the U.S. Treasury to buy high-rated, three-month commercial paper.
On March 23, the Fed expanded the CPFF to include some short-term municipal bonds as well.
How it impacts Main Street: Businesses forced to shut down or significantly scale back their operations are scrambling to find financing as the U.S. tries to flatten the curve on the novel coronavirus. But with counterparties less willing to buy corporate debt, the Fed is stepping in to directly take on risk by snatching up commercial paper. In theory, the CPFF should allow businesses to keep employees on payroll and ensure that the business is still there for workers to return to once the economy starts up again.
Primary Dealer Credit Facility (PDCF)*
Date announced: March 17
Date launched: March 20 (effective through at least September 2020)
Technical details: The PDCF offers short-term (up to 90-day) loans to primary dealers, or firms that serve as intermediaries between the government and the market. To get access to the loans, the dealers can offer up a wide variety of different types of collateral (investment grade corporate debt, commercial paper, municipal debt, mortgage-backed securities, asset-backed securities, and even some stocks). Exchange-traded funds and mutual funds are not eligible collateral under the PDCF.
How it impacts Main Street: The PDCF allows those dealers at the heart of the financial system to temporarily liquidate some assets that they may be unable to sell in the open market. Without assets trapped on the balance sheet, those primary dealers would then have the liquidity to lend to businesses disrupted by the virus.
Money Market Mutual Fund Liquidity Facility (MMLF)*
Date announced: March 18, March 20
Date launched: March 23 (effective through at least September 2020)
Technical details: Much like the PDCF, the MMLF offers short-term loans, but to all U.S. banks. Under the program, banks offer up collateral in the form of U.S. Treasuries, asset-backed commercial paper, and some unsecured commercial paper. The MMLF is similar to the crisis-era Asset-Backed Commercial Paper Money Market Mutual Fund Liquidity Facility (AMLF), but the Fed on March 20 announced that it would expand the MMLF to take on short-term (with maturities of a year or less) municipal debt as eligible collateral as well.
The Treasury will provide $10 billion of credit protection.
How it impacts Main Street: The expansion of the MMLF to municipal debt is a new move. With businesses closed, local municipalities and states may be unable to collect tax revenue for a while. As a result, municipal debt markets have been drying up as bond buyers worry about the economic spillover of the virus onto the credit health of American towns, cities, and states. The Fed was able to retrofit the MMLF to the muni debt market in an attempt to maintain the flow of financing for localities and their public utilities.
Primary Market Corporate Credit Facility (PMCCF)*
Date announced: March 23, April 9 (effective through at least September 30)
Technical details: The PMCCF will purchase investment-grade corporate bonds (with maturities of four years or less) directly from eligible issuers and offer them a loan. Like the CPFF, the facility will have the support of billions of dollars from the U.S. Treasury and will hold the bonds in an SPV. Companies accessing the PMCCF would pay the Fed interest on the loan but would be allowed to hold off on interest payments for up to six months, during which it would not be allowed to pay dividends or buyback shares.
On April 9, the Treasury expanded its support from $10 billion to $50 billion as the Fed expanded the scope of the program to cover “fallen angel” corporate debt with below investment-grade ratings of BB-/Ba3.
The program is new and was not deployed during the 2008 crisis.
How it impacts Main Street: Companies with weaker credit ratings cannot access the CPFF, but strains in the investment-grade and high-yield markets have raised concerns that those with a higher-risk of default may be exposed. The PMCCF hopes to backstop those markets and allow companies to find financing and keep their employees on payroll while the business stoppages continue.
Secondary Market Corporate Credit Facility (SMCCF)*
Date announced: March 23, April 9
Date launched: May 12 (effective through at least September 30)
Technical details: As the name implies, the SMCCF will provide a backstop in the secondary market for investment-grade and some high-yield corporate debt targeted by the PMCCF. The facility would include a separate SPV with another $10 billion from the U.S. Treasury, which was expanded to $25 billion on April 9. The SMCCF can also take on some U.S.-listed ETFs with “broad exposure” to the market for U.S. investment-grade corporate bonds, in addition to some ETFs with exposure high-yield corporate bonds.
The SMCCF is also a new tool.
How it impacts Main Street: The SMCCF adds extra juice to its efforts to provide liquidity to the investment-grade and some high-yield corporate debt markets by targeting the secondary market. Just as the PMCCF does, the goal is to maintain access to financing for companies hoping to survive the business disruptions from the novel coronavirus, and keep employees paid in the process. In tandem, both facilities are capable of providing up to $750 billion in support to credit markets.
Term Asset-Backed Securities Loan Facility (TALF)*
Date announced: March 23, April 9 (effective through at least September 30)
Technical details: The TALF was deployed in the financial crisis and is again being deployed to provide loans to U.S. companies in exchange for collateral in the form of asset-backed securities (with exposure to consumer credit like student loans, car loans, credit card receivables, and small business loans). The facility would offer the loans to U.S. companies via primary dealers, and would be supported through an SPV with $10 billion of equity investment from the U.S. Treasury.
On April 9, the Fed expanded the TALF to also accept collateral with underlying credit exposures to leveraged loans (such as collateralized loan obligations) and commercial mortgages. On May 12, the Fed offered more specifics on the types of CLOs it would accept.
How it impacts Main Street: Asset-backed securities provide liquidity to the underlying availability of consumer credit categories familiar to most Americans. The TALF program is aimed at giving market-makers the confidence to package loans which in theory, should give underwriters the confidence to extend credit to businesses and household through the crisis.
Foreign and International Monetary Authority (FIMA) Repo Facility
Date announced: March 31
Date launched: April 6 (effective through at least the beginning of October)
Technical details: The Fed’s U.S. dollar swap arrangements are only available to 14 central banks, but the repo facility offers U.S. dollars to any of the over 200 foreign and international monetary authorities (FIMA) that have accounts at the New York Fed. Through the FIMA repo facility, other central banks and monetary authorities looking to liquidate their positions in U.S. Treasuries will be able to temporarily swap those securities for U.S. dollars.
How it impacts Main Street: The FIMA repo facility is aimed at supplying U.S. dollars to the world as global investors and companies hunker down in greenbacks. Like the U.S. dollar swap arrangements, the FIMA repo facility is designed to avoid any foreign market strains resulting from a dollar shortage, which could spillover into the U.S. if not properly addressed.
Paycheck Protection Program Liquidity Facility (PPPLF)*
Date announced: April 6, April 30
Date launched: April 16 (effective through at least Sept. 30)
Technical details: The Federal Reserve will backstop the $350 billion Paycheck Protection Program authorized by Congress. On April 6, the Fed released a two-sentence statement on Monday committing the central bank to providing financing to PPP lenders. Three days later, the Fed clarified that the facility will offer credit to any PPP lender and take on those PPP loans as collateral at face value.
As of April 30, the Fed expanded participation in the program to allow non-traditional lenders, like community development financial institutions and members of the Farm Credit System, to access liquidity as well.
How it impacts Main Street: The PPP loans are set at a 1% interest rate, but banks say the rate is below “break even” for them to originate and service. By taking on the loans itself, the Fed’s PPP facility hopes to give banks a little more breathing room to originate the PPP loans that Main Street businesses desperately need to weather the coronavirus-induced shut downs.
Main Street New Loan Facility (MSNLF)*
Date announced: March 23, April 9, April 30 (effective through at least Sept. 30)
Technical details: The MSNLF is one of three facilities within the Fed’s Main Street Lending program and will offer borrowers four-year loans of at least $500,000 with deferred principal and interest payments for the first year.
On April 9, the Fed announced that it would support $600 billion in loans to businesses with fewer than 10,000 employees or up to $2.5 billion in annual revenues. U.S. lenders will underwrite the loans, hold 5% of the loan on its books, and sell the remaining 95% to an SPV backed by $75 billion in equity from the U.S. Treasury.
On April 30, the Fed expanded the scope of the facility to change the employee threshold to 15,000 and the revenue threshold to $5 billion. The updated terms state that the maximum loan size is the lesser of $25 million or four times 2019 adjusted EBITDA.
How it impacts Main Street: The Small Business Administration’s Paycheck Protection Program targets companies with fewer than 500 employees, but businesses larger than that did not have a lifeline. The Main Street Lending Facility will allow businesses to get cheap loans as long as they “make reasonable efforts” to retain employees.
There is no minimum size for eligible companies, and businesses that took a PPP loan remain eligible for a Main Street loan.
Main Street Priority Loan Facility (MSPLF)*
Date announced: April 30 (effective through at least Sept. 30)
Technical details: The Fed revised the the terms of its Main Street Lending Program on April 30 and created the MSPLF to cover larger, slightly riskier loans. Although the minimum loan size is still $500,000, the loan can be as large as six times 2019 adjusted EBITDA ($25 million is still the absolute ceiling). The MSPLF loans also allow the borrower to backload the loan payments toward the end of the four-year term.
The catch is that lenders will have to hold onto a slightly larger slice of the loan (15%) to cover the higher risk. The same profile of borrowers are applicable for the MSPLF; under 15,000 employees and $5 billion in revenue.
How it impacts Main Street: Like the MSNLF, the MSPLF hopes to keep larger businesses whole through the COVID-19 crisis.
The MSPLF appeals to riskier businesses that, for example, may have low earnings but a need for a large loan. Because the loan would be more levered than those offered in the MSNLF, the facility requires the lender to have more skin in the game by holding onto a larger piece of the loan.
Main Street Expanded Loan Facility (MSELF)*
Date announced: March 23, April 9, April 30 (effective through at least Sept. 30)
Technical details: The MSELF is the third program in the Main Street Lending Facility. It differs in that it allow banks to upsize the tranche of an existing loan to terms that would allow them to fund the loan from the $600 billion pool. Borrowers will face the same eligibility requirements: having fewer than 15,000 employees or up to $5 billion in annual revenues.
Loans under the MSELF can be as large as $200 million, but no company can take out a loan that is larger than six times its EBITDA test (like the MSPLF) or 35% of the borrower’s existing outstanding and undrawn debt available.
How it impacts Main Street: Whereas the MSNLF covers brand new loans to borrowers that may not have an outstanding loan, the MSELF will allow borrowers to work with their bank lender to restructure their existing loans. The MSELF targets large borrowers with prospective loans of up to $200 million, vastly out-sizing the $25 million cap imposed by the other two Main Street Lending facilities.
Municipal Liquidity Facility (MLF)*
Date announced: April 9, April 27 (effective through at least Sept. 30)
Technical details: Through an SPV backed by $35 billion of investment from the Treasury, the Fed will buy short-term municipal debt (with maturity of less than two years) directly from state and local governments. U.S. states, cities with more than one million residents, and counties with more than two million residents will be eligible for the program, which will support up to $500 billion in loans.
On April 27, the Fed lowered the bar on qualification to include cities with at least 250,000 residents and counties with at least 500,000 residents. The Fed also expanded the eligible maturity to three years, but municipalities will have to be at least investment-grade to participate. The Fed released pricing details on the facility on May 11.
How it impacts Main Street: Similar to the expanded scope of the MMLF, the municipal liquidity facility hopes to provide a lifeline to local and state governments facing dramatic funding gaps with tax revenue collections essentially frozen. Because local and state governments are the key providers of critical services like unemployment insurance and sanitation, the Fed hopes to prevent municipalities from defaulting by offering to take on their debt if counter-parties are unavailable.
(* denotes facilities opened by the Fed with approval from the U.S. Treasury under Section 13(3) of the Federal Reserve Act)
Brian Cheung is a reporter covering the Fed, economics, and banking for Yahoo Finance. You can follow him on Twitter @bcheungz.