Case rates are rising in all regions in England apart from the capital, the UK Health Security Agency said.
South-west England has the highest rate, with 667.6 cases per 100,000 people in the seven days to October 17, up from 327.1.
The East Midlands has the second highest rate at 494.0, down from 496.7, the only region to record a week-on-week drop.
London has the lowest rate at 253.0, up from 220.5.
The highest rate of Covid infections is among 10 to 19-year-olds, with 1,366.8 cases per 100,000 people in the seven days to October 17, up week-on-week from 1,134.9.
The second highest rate is among five to nine-year-olds, up from 585.0 to 719.2.
For both age groups this is the highest weekly rate since this data was first collected in October 2020.
The lowest rate is among people aged 80 and over, at 121.2, up from 115.6.
Watch: Boris Johnson rejects calls for tougher plans amid rising cases
On Wednesday, Health Secretary Sajid Javid warned that cases could reach 100,000 a day this winter as he urged people to wear masks in crowded places.
The UK recorded 223 Covid-related deaths within 28 days of a positive test on Wednesday, in the biggest daily jump since early March.
Britain has one of the highest case rates in the world, second only to Romania, with daily cases regularly topping 40,000.
Ministers are trying to drive up booster jabs and vaccines for 12 to 15-year-olds in an attempt to resist implementing Plan B of its measures to control coronavirus this autumn and winter if hospitals come under further pressure.
Plan B includes bringing back legal requirements to wear masks, asking people to work from home and the mandatory use of vaccine certificates, but the Telegraph reported that the Cabinet Office was considering a Plan C to include the banning of household mixing.
Boris Johnson said the Government is sticking with its winter Covid plan despite the “high” number of infections.
Speaking during a visit to a school in County Antrim, the Prime Minister said the numbers were “within the parameters” forecast by scientists advising the Government.
“We are continuing with the plan we set out in July. We are watching the numbers very carefully every day,” he said in a pooled clip for broadcasters.
“The numbers of infections are high but we are within the parameters of what the predictions were, what Spi-M (modelling group) and the others said we would be at this stage given the steps we are taking.
“We are sticking with our plan.”
Watch: What UK government COVID-19 support is available?