Canada markets closed
  • S&P/TSX

    20,230.40
    +57.05 (+0.28%)
     
  • S&P 500

    4,400.64
    -0.82 (-0.02%)
     
  • DOW

    34,930.93
    -127.59 (-0.36%)
     
  • CAD/USD

    0.7999
    +0.0013 (+0.17%)
     
  • CRUDE OIL

    72.47
    +0.08 (+0.11%)
     
  • BTC-CAD

    49,974.84
    -220.93 (-0.44%)
     
  • CMC Crypto 200

    934.96
    +5.03 (+0.54%)
     
  • GOLD FUTURES

    1,814.40
    +14.70 (+0.82%)
     
  • RUSSELL 2000

    2,224.96
    +33.12 (+1.51%)
     
  • 10-Yr Bond

    1.2610
    +0.0270 (+2.19%)
     
  • NASDAQ futures

    14,954.25
    -57.25 (-0.38%)
     
  • VOLATILITY

    18.31
    -1.05 (-5.42%)
     
  • FTSE

    7,016.63
    +20.55 (+0.29%)
     
  • NIKKEI 225

    27,689.92
    +108.26 (+0.39%)
     
  • CAD/EUR

    0.6743
    +0.0002 (+0.03%)
     

Estimating The Intrinsic Value Of Canadian National Railway Company (TSE:CNR)

·5 min read

How far off is Canadian National Railway Company (TSE:CNR) from its intrinsic value? Using the most recent financial data, we'll take a look at whether the stock is fairly priced by taking the expected future cash flows and discounting them to their present value. We will take advantage of the Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) model for this purpose. Believe it or not, it's not too difficult to follow, as you'll see from our example!

Remember though, that there are many ways to estimate a company's value, and a DCF is just one method. If you still have some burning questions about this type of valuation, take a look at the Simply Wall St analysis model.

View our latest analysis for Canadian National Railway

The model

We use what is known as a 2-stage model, which simply means we have two different periods of growth rates for the company's cash flows. Generally the first stage is higher growth, and the second stage is a lower growth phase. To begin with, we have to get estimates of the next ten years of cash flows. Where possible we use analyst estimates, but when these aren't available we extrapolate the previous free cash flow (FCF) from the last estimate or reported value. We assume companies with shrinking free cash flow will slow their rate of shrinkage, and that companies with growing free cash flow will see their growth rate slow, over this period. We do this to reflect that growth tends to slow more in the early years than it does in later years.

Generally we assume that a dollar today is more valuable than a dollar in the future, so we discount the value of these future cash flows to their estimated value in today's dollars:

10-year free cash flow (FCF) estimate

2021

2022

2023

2024

2025

2026

2027

2028

2029

2030

Levered FCF (CA$, Millions)

CA$3.14b

CA$3.71b

CA$4.02b

CA$4.24b

CA$4.61b

CA$4.85b

CA$5.06b

CA$5.23b

CA$5.38b

CA$5.51b

Growth Rate Estimate Source

Analyst x10

Analyst x10

Analyst x5

Analyst x2

Analyst x2

Est @ 5.39%

Est @ 4.23%

Est @ 3.42%

Est @ 2.85%

Est @ 2.46%

Present Value (CA$, Millions) Discounted @ 6.7%

CA$2.9k

CA$3.3k

CA$3.3k

CA$3.3k

CA$3.3k

CA$3.3k

CA$3.2k

CA$3.1k

CA$3.0k

CA$2.9k

("Est" = FCF growth rate estimated by Simply Wall St)
Present Value of 10-year Cash Flow (PVCF) = CA$32b

The second stage is also known as Terminal Value, this is the business's cash flow after the first stage. For a number of reasons a very conservative growth rate is used that cannot exceed that of a country's GDP growth. In this case we have used the 5-year average of the 10-year government bond yield (1.5%) to estimate future growth. In the same way as with the 10-year 'growth' period, we discount future cash flows to today's value, using a cost of equity of 6.7%.

Terminal Value (TV)= FCF2030 × (1 + g) ÷ (r – g) = CA$5.5b× (1 + 1.5%) ÷ (6.7%– 1.5%) = CA$109b

Present Value of Terminal Value (PVTV)= TV / (1 + r)10= CA$109b÷ ( 1 + 6.7%)10= CA$57b

The total value, or equity value, is then the sum of the present value of the future cash flows, which in this case is CA$89b. In the final step we divide the equity value by the number of shares outstanding. Compared to the current share price of CA$134, the company appears around fair value at the time of writing. Valuations are imprecise instruments though, rather like a telescope - move a few degrees and end up in a different galaxy. Do keep this in mind.

dcf
dcf

The assumptions

Now the most important inputs to a discounted cash flow are the discount rate, and of course, the actual cash flows. Part of investing is coming up with your own evaluation of a company's future performance, so try the calculation yourself and check your own assumptions. The DCF also does not consider the possible cyclicality of an industry, or a company's future capital requirements, so it does not give a full picture of a company's potential performance. Given that we are looking at Canadian National Railway as potential shareholders, the cost of equity is used as the discount rate, rather than the cost of capital (or weighted average cost of capital, WACC) which accounts for debt. In this calculation we've used 6.7%, which is based on a levered beta of 1.089. Beta is a measure of a stock's volatility, compared to the market as a whole. We get our beta from the industry average beta of globally comparable companies, with an imposed limit between 0.8 and 2.0, which is a reasonable range for a stable business.

Looking Ahead:

Although the valuation of a company is important, it shouldn't be the only metric you look at when researching a company. It's not possible to obtain a foolproof valuation with a DCF model. Instead the best use for a DCF model is to test certain assumptions and theories to see if they would lead to the company being undervalued or overvalued. For example, changes in the company's cost of equity or the risk free rate can significantly impact the valuation. For Canadian National Railway, we've compiled three additional factors you should assess:

  1. Risks: For example, we've discovered 2 warning signs for Canadian National Railway that you should be aware of before investing here.

  2. Management:Have insiders been ramping up their shares to take advantage of the market's sentiment for CNR's future outlook? Check out our management and board analysis with insights on CEO compensation and governance factors.

  3. Other Solid Businesses: Low debt, high returns on equity and good past performance are fundamental to a strong business. Why not explore our interactive list of stocks with solid business fundamentals to see if there are other companies you may not have considered!

PS. Simply Wall St updates its DCF calculation for every Canadian stock every day, so if you want to find the intrinsic value of any other stock just search here.

This article by Simply Wall St is general in nature. It does not constitute a recommendation to buy or sell any stock, and does not take account of your objectives, or your financial situation. We aim to bring you long-term focused analysis driven by fundamental data. Note that our analysis may not factor in the latest price-sensitive company announcements or qualitative material. Simply Wall St has no position in any stocks mentioned.

Have feedback on this article? Concerned about the content? Get in touch with us directly. Alternatively, email editorial-team (at) simplywallst.com.

Our goal is to create a safe and engaging place for users to connect over interests and passions. In order to improve our community experience, we are temporarily suspending article commenting